研究美国食品供应所需的精确而具有代表性的食物成份数据的获取

热门搜索 食物  美国  美国人  数据  成果 

摘要:项目来源:美国项目名称:研究美国食品供应所需的精确而具有代表性的食物成份数据的获取承担机构:NutrientData项目编号:1235-52000-051-00起止时间:200

项目来源 : 美国
项目名称 : 研究美国食品供应所需的精确而具有代表性的食物成份数据的获取
承担机构 : Nutrient Data
项目编号 : 1235-52000-051-00
起止时间 : 2004.2-2009.2
项目成员 : Joanne M Holden
联系方式 :
Nutrient Data
Supervisory Nutritionist
Joanne.Holden@ars.usda.gov
Phone: (301) 504-0630
Fax: (301) 504-0632
Room 105
10300 BALTIMORE AVENUE
BLDG 005 BARC-WEST
BELTSVILLE, MD, 20705-2350
资助机构 : 美国农业部
项目简介 :
目标:
通过收集有关一般食物消费的最新分析数据来提高当前的健康意识,这些食物通常会导致美国肥胖人数的增加。
选择适当的数据库对分析数据进行编译,并将所得的数据公布于众加快营养数据库的更新速度。
鉴定能量和其他营养素对肥胖的影响效果,以及监控美国人食物消费的不同所引起的营养方面的变化,其中在这些美国人中包括了低收入的少数群体,特别是拉丁美洲裔、非洲裔和土著裔美国人以美国农业部的国家营养数据库作为参考标准,编译和公布有关食物成份数据的变化情况,其中它涵盖了超过3,000种的食物以及超过65种的营养成份,并支持题为“美国人食物消费调查”的NHANES研究,。


方法:
在这项研究中,我们将鉴定哪些食物是美国人所需的能量和营养成份的重要来源,并根据它们的重要性对食物进行分级,我们还将分析确定哪里的营养数据不仅与食物和营养素的优先级不符,也与全国性的具有代表性的数据值不一致,只有那些与全国性总样接近或相符的数据才会被选作食物样本而进行分析,。

包括严格的质量管理分析在内的各种有效的化学方法将在该研究中被采用,最终的结果将通过NDL的网址www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl公布给学术界和美国居民,并被直接应用于题目为“美国人食物消费调查”的NHANES研究中
研究进展 :
2004 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
Current, accurate, unbiased, and representative food composition data for up to 128 nutrients and other components (e.g., flavonoids) which may be bioactive are not widely available from sources other than USDA. These data for more than 6,000 foods are used as the foundation of most other food composition databases and related applications in the U.S. and worldwide to monitor food and nutrient intake, to conduct human nutrition research, to label foods under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, and to provide a safe and adequate food supply. In particular, data for newly recognized food components (e.g., choline) are used to test important health hypotheses (e.g., relationship of choline intake to incidence of Neural Tube Defects in infants). This CRIS supports the research to develop and maintain the NDB System. The project covers research conducted under three main objectives;
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of more than 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 107-Component 4, Composition of Foods, Performance Goal 3.1.2 for food composition and consumption, there is a requirement to "develop techniques for determining food composition, maintain national food composition databases, [and] monitor the food and nutrient consumption of the U.S. population." In addition, the Action Plan discusses the fact that the national nutrition focus is shifting from the prevention of nutrient deficiencies to emphasizing health and reducing disease risk.
2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
Year 1 (FY 2004)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis using the Keyfoods Method. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new analytical data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop Request for Proposals (RFP) to solicit qualified analytical contractors. Receive and evaluate lab proposals.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Develop and implement relevant modifications to AIM_NDBS to facilitate entry of data. Analyze enriched and unenriched grain products. Initiation of calculation of added nutrients for commodity type foods to incorporate in SR18. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods for SR18 (2005).
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR17 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Review and compile final data for fluoride in beverages and water. Provide fluoride analytical data to NCC. Release USDA Fluoride database on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Trans fatty acids Review existing data for trans fatty acids. Qualify analytical labs.
Choline Prepare and release Special Interest Database for Choline and Betaine for foods on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Sample and analyze selected baby foods for choline.
Phytonutrients Review and compile data for proanthocyanidins in vegetables, seeds, nuts, and grains. Release first Special Interest Database for proanthocyanidins in foods. Compile and review new analytical data for flavonoids in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Update and release flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Procure and prepare samples of Native American and Alaskan foods samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Modification of formulation module in AIM NDBS. Multiple manuscripts on formulation validation of multi-ingredient retail and restaurant foods.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data evaluation study. Distribute sets of publications to participants.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Collect matched sample units of selected foods for analysis. Generate nutrient values for selected nutrients for individual units and composite samples. Review and analyze data. Develop statistical model of nutrient variability through analyses of variance for the values. Draft manuscript(s) for publication.
Nutrient variability studies for folate in selected foods Identify foods to be tested. Collect and process samples for analysis. Send identical samples to four labs for analysis. Review and evaluate results. Prepare manuscripts for publication.
Year 2(FY 2005) Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Develop updated Keyfoods Lists using 2001-2002 NHANES data. Set priorities for new foods to be analyzed. Develop specific statistical sampling plans for foods. Collect and analyze samples of foods for up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile data for foods.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop request for proposals. Receive and evaluate lab proposals. Ship check samples and evaluate results. Obtain best and final offers and award contracts. Award new contracts to acceptable multiple offerors. Monitor analytical and quality assurance data.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Calculate estimates for formulated foods using new data for agricultural commodities. Review and release data in SR18.
Disseminate SR releases Compile and disseminate SR18 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Incorporate fluoride data into SR18 (2005). Initiate manuscripts for fluoride results for sampling of water, beverages, and quality assurance programs. Submit manuscript(s) to journals.
Trans fatty acids Qualify analytical labs. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select foods for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Complete development of Special Interest Database for Trans Fatty Acids. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR18. Choline Develop sampling plans for food ingredients. Analyze food ingredient samples. Review and release data in updated version of the choline Special Interest Database. Phytonutrients Initiate update of the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones. Complete the update of the flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Identify sources of additional Native American foods to be analyzed. Procure and prepare sample units. Analyze samples for up to 128 nutrients. Review and prepare data for release data in SR19 (2006).
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate procedures for developing estimates for formulated foods Modify formulation module in AIM_NDBS. Develop plan for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation. Determine test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Sample and process test set of foods for analysis. Analyze foods for indicator nutrients in test foods. Initiate recalculation of composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Initiate analysis data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data entry study. Distribute sets of publications for validation study to participants. Receive results and analyze participants' data. Develop manuscript to report results of study. Define and modify algorithms for NDBS (new).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop a plan to identify sources and magnitude of variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
Year 3 (FY 2006)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added /fortified nutrients Estimate added nutrient values for agricultural commodity type foods to incorporate into SR20. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20 (2007). Initiate estimation of added sugar and incorporate values into SR20.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR19 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select food sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR 19 (2006). Initiate estimation of values for related foods in SR20. Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR19. Develop estimates for more than 3000 related foods for FNDDS (SR20 in 2007).
Phytonutrients Complete update of Special Interest Database for isoflavones. Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Analyze samples of Native American and Alaskan Foods. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient Determine additional test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Continue to sample and process foods for analysis. Analyze foods for second tier indicator nutrients in test foods. Recalculate composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Analyze data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Revise plan to assess variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data. results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new).
Year 4 (FY 2007)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added nutrients Release estimates for added nutrient values for commodity type foods and incorporate into SR20. Complete updates for multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20. Estimate added sugar and incorporate values into SR20. Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR20 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for selected foods to be analyzed. Select foods sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR20. Complete estimation of values for related foods in SR20 (2007).
Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR. Complete estimates for more than 3,000 related foods in FNDDS. Incorporate choline data into SR20 (2007).
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Interest for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Assess needs for data for other population groups, (e.g., Hispanics). Procure and prepare samples. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Complete manuscripts.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Monitor data quality and system requirements for NDBS.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Complete manuscripts to describe experiments to estimate variability.
Year 5 (FY 2008)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis for monitoring of Keyfoods and special populations. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR21 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Monitor trans fatty acid data currency for FNDDS. Update trans fatty acid data as needed.
Choline Monitor choline data currency for FNDDS. Update choline data as needed.
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance. Databases for special populations Procure and prepare samples of foods (e.g. Hispanic) samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Monitor needs for changes in procedures.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new milestone).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
3.Milestones:
A. List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2004. How many milestones did you fully or substantially meet in FY 2004 and indicate which ones were not fully or substantially met, briefly explain why not, and your plans to do so.
Many of the milestones were completed. Milestones marked with an asterisk will be continued into Year 2 (2005). Under Objective 1 the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program continued with the sampling and analysis of 6,000 samples of 146 foods. All milestones in this area were completed. However, progress on the development of new analytical contracts proceeded more slowly than expected due to competing demands. This work will continue in FY 2005. Work on developing and implementing Estimates for added/fortified nutrients was initiated in FY 2004. SR17 was released on schedule in August 2004. Under Objective 2, Special Interest Databases for choline (March), proanthocyanidins (August) and fluoride (September) were released. In addition, values for 90 Native American and Alaskan Native foods were released. Under Objective 3 work on the validation of formulation procedures and the expert system module was delayed. However, significant progress on the assessment of sources of variability in selected foods was made. Data have been analyzed and results of this preliminary work are being finalized. Significant progress on nutrient variability and stability studies of folate in foods was completed with the preparation of two manuscripts. One has been accepted for publication while the second has been submitted.
The following milestones were scheduled to be completed under Year (FY 2004).
Year 1 (FY 2004)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis using the Keyfoods Method. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new analytical data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop Request for Proposals (RFP) to solicit qualified analytical contractors. *Receive and evaluate lab proposals.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Develop and implement relevant modifications to AIM_NDBS to facilitate entry of data. Analyze enriched and unenriched grain products. Initiate calculation of added nutrients for commodity type foods to incorporate in SR18. *Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods for SR18 (2005).
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR17 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Review and compile final data for fluoride in beverages and water. Provide fluoride analytical data to NCC. Release USDA Fluoride database on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Trans fatty acids Review existing data for trans fatty acids. *Qualify analytical labs.
Choline Prepare and release Special Interest Database for Choline and Betaine for foods on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Sample and analyze selected baby foods for choline.
Phytonutrients Review and compile data for proanthocyanidins in vegetables, seeds, nuts, and grains Release first Special Interest Database for proanthocyanidins in foods. Compile and review new analytical data for flavonoids in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. *Update and release flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Procure and prepare samples of Native American and Alaskan foods samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation *Modify formulation module in AIM_NDBS. Develop plan for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation. Determine test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system *Recruit and train participants for data evaluation study. *Distribute sets of publications to participants.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Collect matched sample units of selected foods for analysis. Generate nutrient values for selected nutrients for individual units and composite samples. Review and analyze data. Develop statistical model of nutrient variability through analyses of variance for the values. Draft manuscript(s) for publication.
Nutrient variability studies for folate in selected foods Identify foods to be tested. Collect and process samples for analysis. Send identical samples to four labs for analysis. Review and evaluate results. Prepare manuscripts for publication.
B. List the milestones that you expect to address over the next three years (FY 2005, 2006, & 2007). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone?
The milestones for Year 2 (FY 2005) are presented below. Plans for FY 2005 will be devoted to the continuation of various projects discussed under the milestones for FY2004. Work described under Objective 1 will continue on the NFNAP program with the sampling and analysis of additional Keyfoods, Native American foods, and fortified foods. New analytical contracts will be awarded to replace those which are expiring at the end of 2004. These data will support other projects listed under Objectives 2 and 3. The update of the flavonoids database with new data generated by scientists in the Food Composition Laboratory will be completed to enhance the flavonoids database for fruits vegetables, nuts, and grains. These new data were generated for samples of foods collected and prepared in the U.S. The process of estimating values for Added/fortified nutrients in foods will be initiated in FY2005 to address data needs for the National Health and Nutrition Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES). Release 18 of the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference will be disseminated in the Spring, 2005 to provide the database for the NHANES. Under Objectives the main activities will include the work on the trans fatty acid database and the databases for Native Americans and Alaskan Natives. Additional foods will be sampled for choline. NDL will initiate the update of a Special Interest Database for isoflavones. Fluoride data will be incorporated into SR18. Manuscripts to report the results of the fluoride project are in preparation. NDL scientists will develop the plan for monitoring trans fatty acid content of foods.
Under Objective 3 work will continue to validate several software modules in the National Nutrient Databank System. In particular, scientists in NDL will develop plans for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation of nutrient values for formulated and processed foods. Validation of the algorithms for the data evaluation system will be initiated by planning how to recruit experts from major national centers to participate in the testing period.
Work on the assessment of variability in nutrient values for foods will continue with the preparation of the first manuscript for publication.
Year 2(FY 2005)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Develop updated Keyfoods Lists using 2001-2002 NHANES data. Set priorities for new foods to be analyzed. Develop specific statistical sampling plans for foods. Collect and analyze samples of foods for up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile data for foods.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop request for proposals. Receive and evaluate lab proposals. Ship check samples and evaluate results. Obtain best and final offers and award contracts. Award new contracts to acceptable multiple offertories. Monitor analytical and quality assurance data.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Calculate estimates for formulated foods using new data for agricultural commodities. Review and release data in SR18.
Disseminate SR releases Compile and disseminate SR18 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Incorporate fluoride data into SR18 (2005). Initiate manuscripts for fluoride results for sampling of water, beverages, and quality assurance programs. Submit manuscript(s) to journals.
Trans fatty acids Qualify analytical labs. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select foods for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Complete development of Special Interest Database for Trans Fatty Acids. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR 18.
Choline Develop sampling plans for food ingredients. Analyze food ingredient samples. Review and release data in updated version of the choline Special Interest Database. Phytonutrients Initiate update of the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones Complete the update of the flavonoids Special Interest Database
Database for special populations Identify sources of additional Native American foods to be analyzed. Procure and prepare sample units. Analyze samples for up to 128 nutrients. Review and prepare data for release data in SR19 (2006).
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate procedures for developing estimates for formulated foods Modify formulation module in AIM_NDBS. Develop plan for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation. Determine test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Sample and process test set of foods for analysis. Analyze foods for indicator nutrients in test foods. Initiate recalculation of composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Initiate analysis data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data entry study. Distribute sets of publications for validation study to participants. Receive results and analyze participants' data. Develop manuscript to report results of study. Define and modify algorithms for NDBS (new).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop a plan to identify sources and magnitude of variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
Summary of Year 3 Plans. During Year 3 work, as described above, will continue on all three objectives. The main activities will include the continuation of the NFNAP for selected minority groups. SR19 will be disseminated. Under Objective 2, work will continue on Trans fatty acids with intermittent data releases in successive SR versions. Work on other Special Interest Databases will be in the monitoring phases to maintain currency and relevancy for other applications. Under Objective 3, scientists will continue to validate procedures for developing estimates for formulated foods and will continue experimental work on the magnitude of variability for different components in foods.
Year 3 (FY 2006)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database or Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added /fortified nutrients Estimate added nutrient values for agricultural commodity type foods to incorporate into SR20. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20 (2007). Initiate estimation of added sugar and incorporate values into SR20.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR19 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select food sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR19 (2006). Initiate estimation of values for related foods in SR20. Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR19. Develop estimates for more than 3000 related foods for FNDDS (SR20, 2007).
Phytonutrients Complete update of Special Interest Database for isoflavones Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new) Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Analyze samples of Native American and Alaskan Foods. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculations Determine additional test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Continue to sample and process foods for analysis. Analyze foods for second tier indicator nutrients in test foods. Recalculate composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Analyze data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Revise plan to assess variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new).
Summary of Year 4 Plans
Efforts in Year 4 will continue in the same general areas but will be determined by the results of previous phases of work. It is expected that work on the NFNAP will continue with extensive analyses of data results to mine significant findings about the composition of foods as consumed. Release of SR20 will occur in the Spring of 2007. Work will continue on the development and release of trans fatty acid data.
Year 4 (FY 2007)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added nutrients Release estimates for added nutrient values for commodity type foods and incorporate into SR20. Complete updates for multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20. Estimate added sugar and incorporate values into SR20.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR20 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for selected foods to be analyzed. Select foods sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR20. Complete estimation of values for related foods in SR20 (2007).
Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR. Complete estimates for more than 3000 related foods in FNDDS. Incorporate choline data into SR20 (2007).
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Spacing Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Assess needs for data for other populations groups, (e.g. Hispanics). Procure and prepare samples. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Complete manuscripts.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Monitor data quality and system requirements for NDBS.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Complete manuscripts to describe experiments to estimate variability.
4.What were the most significant accomplishments this past year?
A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2004.
The problem is to develop and maintain accurate and representative data for nutriens and other bioactive components in foods. To address this problem NDL developed the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), Release 17, which was released in August 2004. SR is the major product of the National Nutrient Databank System (NDBS) and is available on the NDL Web site (www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp) and on CD-ROM. SR17 provides estimates of composition for up to 128 components and 6,839 foods. This release includes data for selected foods analyzed under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP). NFNAP is a program designed to.
1)identify those诗晴微微皱起眉头 foods that are the major contributors of nutrients to the U.S. diet;.
2)conduct a probability-based nationwide sampling of those foods; and.
3)analyze the samples under USDA supervised laboratory contracts. In FY 2004, NDL sampled 146 food items including fast foods, rotisserie chicken from grocery stores, and other retail foods and beverages in 12 locations across the U.S. Of these, 29 were for the American Indian/Alaskan Native database and 27 were USDA Commodity foods. To date, NFNAP nutrient data were used to add or update 357 food items in SR.
Major data changes made to the database since the last release include; updated nutrient profiles for 14 legumes and legume products; revised alpha-tocopherol values in infant formulas to consider different activities of the all-rac and RRR forms of alpha-tocopherol; added expanded frozen novelties and ice creams to include no sugar added, light and 98% fat free brand name items; added brand name fast food data where analytical data were available through NFNAP; and new data, including trans fatty acid levels, for 28 typical industrial oils, margarines, and shortenings designed for use in commercial food products. These industrial products are described by oil source (soy, canola, etc.) and by recommended usage (filling fat, salad and light frying, confections, etc). In particular, new data have been added for 19 Navajo foods and 71 Alaskan native foods, as a result of collaboration with scientists in western universities and tribal areas. These data are the major source of food composition data in the United States and are critical to U.S. health and nutrition research and monitoring programs as well as for the development of food and agricultural policy and trade. They provide the foundation of the databases used to evaluate nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and are used in the development of nutrition guidance materials.
B. Other Significant Accomplishments.
In addition to SR, the scientific community requires data for new food components which may have beneficial health effects. In 2004 three new databases were completed and released on the NDL Web site: www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. These databases are based on original analytical data generated by NDL, in collaboration with various investigators in the private sector or in universities. Generally, they contain data for between 150 and 400 foods and provide the first generation database for health research.
Release of the Choline/Betaine Database Choline was recently identified by scientists working on the revision of the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Dietary Reference Intakes as a component which may help to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. However, no database for the choline content of foods was available. While the IOM has made recommendations for choline intake by estimating an Adequate Intake (AI), they also indicated a high priority need for data on choline intake in the U.S. population. During 2004, the Special Interest Database entitled "USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods, 2004" was released on the NDL Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. This release culminated a four-year cooperative effort between NDL and the University of North Carolina, encompassing the analyses of 787 samples distributed among 434 foods. Choline is needed for normal cell function, assists in the metabolism of fat and cholesterol, and prevents fat accumulation in the liver. Betaine, a derivative of choline, is important for its role in the donation of methyl groups used in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. The development of the choline/betaine database provides researchers and consumers with the means for estimating choline/betaine intake. Data from this work has already been used by the research community to implicate choline and betaine intake to the etiology of neural tube defect (Shaw, G.M., Carmichael, S.L., Yang, W., Selvin, S., Schaffer, D.M. 2004. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. American Journal of Epidemiology. 160:102-109).
Release of the Proanthocyanidins (PAs) Database Recent interest by the scientific community in proanthocyanidins, also, called condensed tannins, has increased. PAs are polymers of flavan-3-ols. It has been hypothesized that the free radical scavenging properties of PAs may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no database for levels of PAs in foods had been developed. NDL released a Special Interest Database for PAs in over 200 foods in August 2004. PAs are present in numerous vegetables, nuts, seeds, and wine and even some dark chocolates. The major part of the analytical data were generated by the USDA and the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR in collaboration with Mars, Inc. Also, existing literature reports were reviewed and evaluated for additional analytical data using USDA's data quality evaluation system. The Special Interest Database for PAs (available at www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp) will be used to study the link between CVD and PA intakes.
Release of the National Fluoride Database The assessment of fluoride intake is critical to monitoring dental health as well as to preventing excessive fluoride intake resulting in dental and skeletal fluorosis. However, no comprehensive of database of fluoride values in beverages, water, and selected foods was available. NDL scientists collaborated with scientists at the University of Minnesota, University of Iowa, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to generate original analytical data for fluoride in highly consumed beverages and tap water. The Special Interest Database entitled "USDA National Fluoride Database" was developed during FY 2002 through 2004 and released to the public on the NDL web site (www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp) in September 2004. Also, it supports the development of the University of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center's (NCC) dietary assessment tool for the assessment of fluoride intake and its biological effects. This research has been conducted under the reimbursable agreement Y3-HV-8839 between the NDL and NIH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with funding from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research The database will be a key factor in future research concerning the relationship of fluoride intake to health status. This project included statistically based self-weighted, nationally representative samplings of the beverages and foods that are the chief contributors of dietary fluoride. With OMB approval, drinking water samples were collected from 144 private residences in locations across the country. The University of Iowa College of Dentistry used validated methods to analyze approximately 2000 samples. These analytical data were combined, by NDL, with other unpublished data as well as data gathered from the published literature. These data have been presented at the 28th U.S. National Nutrient Databank Conference held at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, IA. Reports included the unique fluoride sampling experiences, fluoride methodology and quality control, and initial examinations into the fluoride content of retail beverages. In addition to drinking water, many of the chief food and beverage fluoride contributors (e.g., fruit juices, 10% juice drinks, carbonated beverages, ice cream, and frozen novelties) are commonly consumed by children and minority populations. These new data will support nutrition and health research concerning the health effects of fluoride in the diet.
Nutrient Variability Studies Folate Folate is an essential nutrient in the diet and plays an important role in the metabolism of homocysteine and other metabolites associated with the development of CVD. Since 1998, cereal grains, pastas, and rice have been fortified with folic acid to improve the nutritional status of the population. In addition, certain improvements in analytical methodology required the updating of folate data for foods. As part of an ongoing research program in this area, NDL collaborated with scientists at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to investigate the stability of folate and variability between labs. Two manuscripts relating to the variability of folate were completed. The first looked at the stability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), the predominate form of food folate, in seven fresh fruits and vegetables homogenized and stored for various periods of time. Seven fresh fruits and vegetables were prepared for analysis according to procedures used for sample preparation for the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP). The samples were homogenized in liquid nitrogen and 5MTHF was measured after 0,1,2,7,30 days and then at 3-month intervals for a total of 12 months storage. No change in 5MTHF could be detected in any of the composites after 12 months. Therefore, fresh fruits and vegetables may be homogenized and stored frozen under the conditions used for NFNAP for up to 12 months with no loss of 5MTHF beyond the limits of analytical variability. The second was a comparison of total folate concentration in foods determined at three commercial and one university lab. Six foods representing different types of food matrices were sent to the four laboratories. It was difficult to get specific information about the methods used from the commercial labs. All four labs used a microbiological method, but the trienyzme extraction, recommended for cereal grain foods, was used only by the university lab. The total folate values measured at commercial laboratories were subject to high variability between and within laboratories. Most commercial laboratories cannot be used for the analyzing samples for NFNAP, especially cereal grain products. Also, there is a need to validate an official method for the separation and quantitation of natural forms of folate and added folic acid in foods in order to be able to calculate dietary folate equivalents used for Dietary Reference Intakes. These findings will answer specific questions about folate stability and analytical variability which are factors critical to estimating the folate content of foods. C. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations.
Data for Native American and Alaskan Native Foods Native Americans and Alaskan Natives are at high risk for several chronic diseases, including CVD, diabetes, and obesity. As part of a program to improve the dietary habits of Native Americans, NDL collaborated with scientists in the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the Utah State University, the Indian Health Service and others to determine the composition of traditional foods. Significant progress occurred in the development of the American Indian/Alaska Native Food Database, a collaboration of USDA and NIH to develop a comprehensive nutrient database for hundreds of traditional hunted and harvested foods, and mixed dishes as prepared and consumed by Natives. The goal of this effort is to yield analytical data for around 200 traditional foods, supplemented with high quality published data from the scientific literature and/or government documents. These foods were historically a significant part of the Native diet and contributed to a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, cancer and CVD among American Indians. Nineteen Navajo (AZ) foods have been sampled, analyzed and are included in SR17. In addition, about 10 foods from the Ft. Hall Shoshone-Bannock tribe (ID), several foods from the White Mountain Apache (AZ), 10 additional Navajo foods, several forms of agave (Pima, NM), approximately 30 forms of subsistence fish and marine mammals (various tribes in Alaska), and a limited number of other traditional foods have been sampled and are being analyzed. Additionally, published data for Alaska native foods and foods consumed by other tribes across the 48 conterminous states are being added to the database. Data for approximately 70 Alaska Native subsistence foods have been released in the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR17) in August 2004. The availability of these data will stimulate health research among scientists who investigate the health and dietary habits of Native Americans.
Choline Data for Trimethylaminurea As mentioned above there was no database available for choline and betaine in foods. In addition to serving the general research needs of the scientific community, the development of the Choline Database will serve the needs of the research community who are concerned with treating individuals suffering from Trimethylaminurea. About 1% of the U.S. population suffer from a genetic defect which results in an adverse choline side effect - fishy body odor. For individuals with trimethylaminuria, high intakes of choline can result in hypotension and cholinergic side effects such as sweating and diarrhea, as well as fishy body odor. Restricting choline intake for this group could lead to a reduction in body odor and alleviation of symptoms.
Furthermore, women of childbearing age, whose intakes of folate are inadequate, are at risk for delivery of babies with neural tube defects. As with folate, the choline metabolite, betaine, serves as a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Therefore, diets adequate in choline may act to alleviate the risk for neural tube defect. Information on both the betaine and choline content of foods is of particular importance to this population.
5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
This year, FY 2004 represents the first year in the new 5-year project plan for the Nutrient Data Laboratory. Therefore, the accomplishment described in Question 4 a, b, and c represent all accomplishments to date.
The accomplishments for this project plan will expand and update available data for traditional nutrients and bioactive components. USDA's food composition data are the foundation of most other national, local, and regional nutrition and health research applications. In addition, they are used to guide the development of health policy in the U.S. and worldwide.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Periodic releases of the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), provide the foundation for most other food composition databases in the U.S. and in many other countries of the world. This database serves as the basis for food policy development, nutrition monitoring, nutrition research, trade and food product development. The analytical data collected under this program will be disseminated to users in academia, the government, the food industry, the media, and consumers. Research findings pertaining to sampling of the food supply, the evaluation of data quality and the generation of statistically representative estimates will be of value to other investigators in the U.S., other national governments, and international health and agriculture organizations. USDA's food composition products are available on the NDL Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp, on free software for the PALM OS PDA, and on versions to be loaded onto PC's. NDL's Informational Materials Committee received a 2004 Beltsville Technology Transfer Award for enhancing existing nutrient data delivery methods and creating new distribution platforms for dissemination of nutrient data through an ARS Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA).
The technology was transferred, in part, to the scientific community in FY 2004 through presentations at the 28th National Nutrient Databank Conference, Experimental Biology 2004, the Institute of Food Technologist 2004 Annual Meeting, Society for Nutrition Education 37th Annual Meeting, the annual meeting of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and the American Dietetic Association. In addition to scientific presentations, Nutrient Data Laboratory information was highlighted at several Human Nutrition Research Program-sponsored exhibitions at professional meetings; the American Dietetic Association, Agricultural Outlook Forum, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, International Congress of Dietetics, and the Society for Nutrition Education. Information from the Lab was also featured at a variety of non-nutrition related conferences and events, including BARC Field Day, FFA annual meetings, the National Science Teachers Association, Minorities in Science and Technology, high school and college career/health fairs, and several teacher workshops conducted for Maryland Agricultural Education Foundation. Materials distributed at these venues included Nutrient Data magnets and bookmarks, Standard Release announcements, and promotional flyers for HG-72, NFNAP, Phytonutrient Data, and database availability on PDA and PC. NDL database methodologies and research products are also transferred to the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) through specialized training programs which were held in Northeast Asia and Wageningen, The Netherlands during 2004. These training courses are supported, in part, by the Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N.
There are no obvious constraints to the transfer of this technology. Constraints to the release of data may be due to the lack of resources to update data and software.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work.
The release of the personal digital assistant (PDA) version of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) was highlighted in the Agricultural Research Magazine's Science Update in October of 2003 ("Nutrient Database-To-Go". 2003. Agricultural Research Magazine. 51(10): Science Update).
Data from SR are cited frequently and sourced by major media. For example, the food section of The Washington Post utilizes the NDL database for calculating the "Nutritional Analysis" of published recipes: "At the end of each recipe in the Food section you'll find a breakdown of calories and nutrients. These figures are generated by a computer program designed specifically for nutritional analysis. All information is based on figures from the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory." ("Nutrition Analysis", The Washington Post, Food Section, July 28, 2004). These kinds of citations occur frequently in publications such as Parade magazine and USA Today, which go to something like 35 million readers weekly. Other sources, which frequently use NDL data, include the Journal of the American Dietetic Association,Emerging Food R&D Report, and Business Wire.
2005 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
Current, accurate, unbiased, and representative food composition data for up to 136 nutrients and other components (e.g., flavonoids) which may be bioactive are not widely available from sources other than USDA. These data for more than 7,100 foods are used as the foundation of most other food composition databases and related applications in the U.S. and worldwide to monitor food and nutrient intake, to conduct human nutrition research, to label foods under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, and to provide a safe and adequate food supply. In particular, data for newly recognized food components (e.g., choline) are used to test important health hypotheses (e.g., relationship of choline intake to incidence of Neural Tube Defects in infants). This project supports the research to develop and maintain the National Nutrient Database System (NDBS). The project covers research conducted under three main objectives;
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of more than 3,000 foods and 65 components for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), What We Eat in America.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 107-Component 4, Composition of Foods, Performance Goal 3.1.2 for food composition and consumption, there is a requirement to "develop techniques for determining food composition, maintain national food composition databases, [and] monitor the food and nutrient consumption of the U.S. population." In addition, the Action Plan discusses the fact that the national nutrition focus is shifting from the prevention of nutrient deficiencies to emphasizing health and reducing disease risk.
2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
Year 1 (FY 2004)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis using the Keyfoods Method. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new analytical data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop request for proposals (RFP) to solicit qualified analytical contractors. Receive and evaluate lab proposals.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Develop and implement relevant modifications to Architecture Integration Management-National Nutrient Data Bank System (AIM-NDBS) to facilitate entry of data. Analyze enriched and unenriched grain products. Initiation of calculation of added nutrients for commodity type foods to incorporate in SR18. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods for SR18 (2005).
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR17 on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Review and compile final data for fluoride in beverages and water. Provide fluoride analytical data to Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC). Release USDA Fluoride database on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Trans fatty acids Review existing data for trans fatty acids. Qualify analytical labs.
Choline Prepare and release Special Interest Database for Choline and Betaine for foods on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Sample and analyze selected baby foods for choline.
Phytonutrients Review and compile data for proanthocyanidins in vegetables, seeds, nuts, and grains. Release first Special Interest Database for proanthocyanidins in foods. Compile and review new analytical data for flavonoids in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Update and release flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Procure and prepare samples of Native American and Alaskan foods samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels. Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Modification of formulation module in AIM-NDBS. Multiple manuscripts on formulation validation of multi-ingredient retail and restaurant foods.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data evaluation study. Distribute sets of publications to participants.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Collect matched sample units of selected foods for analysis. Generate nutrient values for selected nutrients for individual units and composite samples. Review and analyze data. Develop statistical model of nutrient variability through analyses of variance for the values. Draft manuscript(s) for publication.
Nutrient variability studies for folate in selected foods Identify foods to be tested. Collect and process samples for analysis. Send identical samples to four labs for analysis. Review and evaluate results. Prepare manuscripts for publication.
Year 2 (FY 2005) Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Develop updated Keyfoods Lists using 2001-2002 NHANES data. Set priorities for new foods to be analyzed. Develop specific statistical sampling plans for foods. Collect and analyze samples of foods for up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile data for foods.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop request for proposals. Receive and evaluate lab proposals. Ship check samples and evaluate results. Obtain best and final offers and award contracts. Award new contracts to acceptable multiple offerors. Monitor analytical and quality assurance data.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Calculate estimates for formulated foods using new data for agricultural commodities. Review and release data in SR18.
Disseminate SR releases Compile and disseminate SR18 on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Incorporate fluoride data into SR18 (2005). Initiate manuscripts for fluoride results for sampling of water, beverages, and quality assurance programs. Submit manuscript(s) to journals.
Trans fatty acids Qualify analytical labs. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select foods for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Complete development of Special Interest Database for Trans Fatty Acids. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR18. Choline Develop sampling plans for food ingredients. Analyze food ingredient samples. Review and release data in updated version of the choline Special Interest Database. Phytonutrients Initiate update of the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones. Complete the update of the flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Identify sources of additional Native American foods to be analyzed. Procure and prepare sample units. Analyze samples for up to 128 nutrients. Review and prepare data for release data in SR19 (2006).
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate procedures for developing estimates for formulated foods Modify formulation module in AIM-NDBS. Develop plan for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation. Determine test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Sample and process test set of foods for analysis. Analyze foods for indicator nutrients in test foods. Initiate recalculation of composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Initiate analysis data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data entry study. Distribute sets of publications for validation study to participants. Receive results and analyze participants' data. Develop manuscript to report results of study. Define and modify algorithms for NDBS (new).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop a plan to identify sources and magnitude of variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
Year 3 (FY 2006)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Estimate added nutrient values for agricultural commodity type foods to incorporate into SR20. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20 (2007). Initiate estimation of added sugar and incorporate values into SR20.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR19 on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select food sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR 19 (2006). Initiate estimation of values for related foods in SR20. Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR19. Develop estimates for more than 3000 related foods for FNDDS (SR20 in 2007).
Phytonutrients Complete update of Special Interest Database for isoflavones. Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Analyze samples of Native American and Alaskan Foods. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient Determine additional test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Continue to sample and process foods for analysis. Analyze foods for second tier indicator nutrients in test foods. Recalculate composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Analyze data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Revise plan to assess variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data. results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new).
Year 4 (FY 2007)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added nutrients Release estimates for added nutrient values for commodity type foods and incorporate into SR20. Complete updates for multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20. Estimate added sugar and incorporate values into SR20. Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR20 on the Web site, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for selected foods to be analyzed. Select foods sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR20. Complete estimation of values for related foods in SR20 (2007).
Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR. Complete estimates for more than 3,000 related foods in FNDDS. Incorporate choline data into SR20 (2007).
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Interest for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Assess needs for data for other population groups, (e.g., Hispanics). Procure and prepare samples. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Complete manuscripts.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Monitor data quality and system requirements for NDBS.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Complete manuscripts to describe experiments to estimate variability.
Year 5 (FY 2008)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis for monitoring of Keyfoods and special populations. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR21 on the Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Monitor trans fatty acid data currency for FNDDS. Update trans fatty acid data as needed.
Choline Monitor choline data currency for FNDDS. Update choline data as needed.
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Purpose Databases for currency and biological relevance. Databases for special populations Procure and prepare samples of foods (e.g., Hispanic) samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Monitor needs for changes in procedures.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new milestone).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
The problem is to develop and maintain accurate and representative data for nutrients and other bioactive components in foods. To address this problem the Nutrient Data Lab (NDL) developed the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), Release 18, which was released in August 2005. SR is the major product of the National Nutrient Databank System (NDBS) and is available on the NDL Web site (www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp) and on CD-ROM. SR18 provides estimates of composition for up to 136 components and over 7,100 foods. In SR18 estimates for several "Added Nutrients" were developed to reflect the interest in the scientific community in being able to separate and quantify amounts of intrinsic nutrients versus fortified forms. For SR18 NDL added values for added Vitamin E and added vitamin B12. This release also includes data for selected foods analyzed under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP). NFNAP is a program designed to:.
1)identify those foods that are the major contributors of nutrients to the U.S. diet;.
2)conduct a probability-based nationwide sampling of those foods; and.
3)analyze the samples under USDA supervised laboratory contracts. In FY 2005, NDL sampled 125 food items, including fast foods, rotisserie chicken from grocery stores, and other retail foods and beverages in 12 locations across the U.S. Of these, 29 were for the American Indian/Alaskan Native database and 27 were USDA commodity foods. To date, NFNAP nutrient data were used to add or update 357 food items in SR.
Major changes made to the SR database since the last release include: updated and expanded data for a variety of food items, including different types of french fried potatoes and mushrooms; baked products; industrial wheat flours; baby foods and infant formulas; sweeteners; and beverages including bottled waters, brand name sports drinks, energy drinks, wine, and beer. Seventy-two new food items representing 12 new beef cuts, e.g., shoulder tender medallions, recently introduced to the retail market were added. Data for USDA Commodity ready-to-eat breakfast cereals were added, which expands the available data on USDA Commodities. These are used in USDA nutrition assistance programs such as the National School Lunch Program and the Food Distribution Program on Indian reservations. Data for brand name fast food items have been added including 28 thick, thin and regular crust pizza items. Nutrient values for added vitamin E and added vitamin B12 for all foods used in the FNDDS have been added. Formulations that previously used retail fats and oils were recalculated using new data for industrial fats and oils that were released in SR17.
These data are the major source of food composition data in the U.S. and are critical to U.S. health and nutrition research and monitoring programs as well as for the development of food and agricultural policy and trade. They provide the foundation of the FNDDS used to evaluate nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and are used in the development of nutrition guidance materials.
4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.
The USDA beef calculator was released in September 2005. The beef calculator is an adjunct software program to the USDA search program on the NDL Web site. The program allows the user to select a type of ground beef (product with a labeled lean or fat composition from 70%-95% lean or 5%-30% fat) and a preparation method (raw, broiled patty, pan-broiled patty, pan-browned crumbles, and baked loaf). The program will provide a report of nutrient values on a 100 g. basis or serving size. The current ground beef values available in SR are for the following lean/fat ratios: 95%/5%, 90%/10%, 85%/15%, 80%/20%, 75%/25%, 70%/30%. This program allows the user to obtain nutrient information for any of the intermediate lean/fat products. This calculator will provide the beef industry with the nutrient values for ground beef needed to meet the requirements of the proposed FSIS labeling regulation on single-ingredient meat products. It will also provide consumers, dieticians, and scientists with the nutrient profiles of raw or cooked ground beef products between 70% and 95% lean meat and will allow for a better estimate of nutrient intake with regard to this food.
NDL is collaborating with the National Pork Board to update data in SR for fresh pork cut. Changes in animal husbandry practices and industry procedures have led to availability of leaner cuts. Furthermore, the availability of enhanced products has become common. Over 30% of pork products available in the retail market are enhanced with salt solutions to increase flavor, cooking properties, and consistency. However, these enhanced products are higher in water, sodium, and phosphorus than the natural cuts. The study will determine the nutrient composition of natural and enhanced pork products, both raw and cooked. The study entails a national retail sampling of the nine top-selling retail pork cuts plus ground pork (only three cuts will be samples for the enhanced segment of the study). Natural pork samples have been shipped to the University of Wisconsin for determination of weights and components, and cooked by the most common method identified for each cut. Prepared samples will be delivered to a commercial laboratory acceptable under NFNAP guidelines for homogenization and nutrient analyses. Data from this study will be used to update SR for fresh pork and to introduce new enhanced pork products into SR. Industry will utilize this data to meet requirements of the proposed FSIS labeling regulation for single ingredient meat products. Consumers, scientists, and government agencies will be better able to estimate nutrient intake, particularly for nutrients associated with risk factors for hypertension.
4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.
Data for Native American and Alaskan Native Foods Native Americans and Alaskan Natives are at high risk for several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and obesity. As part of a program to improve the dietary habits of Native Americans, NDL continued to collaborate with scientists in the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the Utah State University, the Indian Health Service and others to determine the composition of traditional foods. Additional foods for Alaskan Natives and Native Americans from the North Central region have been collected, prepared and are being analyzed. The availability of these data will stimulate health research among scientists who investigate the health and dietary habits of Native Americans.
5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
The accomplishments for this project plan will expand and update available data for traditional nutrients and bioactive components. USDA's food composition data are the foundation of most other national, local, and regional nutrition and health research applications. In addition, they are used to guide the development of health policy in the U.S. and worldwide. Updating the database to keep current with the nutrient recommendations (changes in the units for reporting nutrients, such as folate, and different forms of a nutrient being used for the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), such as vitamin E) issued by the Institute of Medicine in the Dietary Reference Intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 is essential for nutrition monitoring activities.
Major accomplishments over the life of the project (FY 2004 and 2005) include the release of SR, release 17 and 18, (Objective.
1)including data for Native Americans and Alaskan Native Foods; (Objective.
2)and nutrient values for added vitamin E and added vitamin B12 to be used for the FNDDS (Objective 1); Special Interest Databases for Choline/Betaine, Proanthocyanidins, and Fluoride (Objective 2); investigation of the stability of folate in homogenized food samples and variability of results among analytical laboratories (Objective 3); and development of the Ground Beef Calculator.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Periodic releases of the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), provide the foundation for most other food composition databases in the U.S. and in many other countries of the world. This database serves as the basis for food policy development, nutrition monitoring, nutrition research, trade and food product development. The analytical data collected under this program will be disseminated to users in academia, the government, the food industry, the media, and consumers. Research findings pertaining to sampling of the food supply, the evaluation of data quality and the generation of statistically representative estimates will be of value to other investigators in the U.S., other national governments, and international health and agriculture organizations. USDA's food composition products are available on the NDL Web site www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp, on free software for the PALM OS PDA, and on versions to be loaded onto PC's.
The technology was transferred, in part, to the scientific community in FY 2005 through presentations at the 29th National Nutrient Databank Conference, Experimental Biology 2005, the Institute of Food Technologist 2005 Annual Meeting, the annual meeting of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and the American Dietetic Association meeting. In addition to scientific presentations, Nutrient Data Laboratory information was highlighted at several Human Nutrition Research Program-sponsored exhibitions at professional meetings Information from the Lab was also featured at a variety of non-nutrition related conferences and events, including BARC Field Day, FFA annual meetings, the National Science Teachers Association, Minorities in Science and Technology, high school and college career/health fairs, and several teacher workshops conducted for Maryland Agricultural Education Foundation. Materials distributed at these venues included Nutrient Data magnets and bookmarks, Standard Release announcements, and promotional flyers for HG-72, NFNAP, Phytonutrient Data, and database availability on PDA and PC. NDL database methodologies and research products were also transferred to the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) through a specialized training program which was held in South Africa in September 2005. The training course was supported, in part, by the Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. and United Nations University.
There are no obvious constraints to the transfer of this technology. Constraints to the release of data may be due to the lack of resources to update data and software.
Data from SR are cited frequently and sourced by major media. For example, the food section of The Washington Post utilizes the NDL database for calculating the "Nutritional Analysis" of published recipes: "At the end of each recipe in the Food section you'll find a breakdown of calories and nutrients. These figures are generated by a computer program designed specifically for nutritional analysis. All information is based on figures from the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory. These kinds of citations occur frequently in publications such as Parade magazine and USA Today, which go to something like 35 million readers weekly. Other sources, which frequently use NDL data, include the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Emerging Food R&D Report, and Business Wire.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Bliss, R. Nutrient Database to help Native Communities. Agricultural Research Magazine. September 2005.
Haytowitz, D., Exler, E., Patterson, K., Pehrsson, P., Holden, J. Use the key foods with an analytical quality control program. National Nutrient Databank Conference, March 31- April 6, 2005.
Holden, J., Cutrufelli, R.. USDA food and beverage composition database: The national nutrient data bank. Pacific Southwest Section AOAC, Sacramento, CA, March 3, 2005.
Holden, J., Bhagwat, S. Status of USDA's databases for bioactive compounds. EuroFIR network meeting, Lisbon, Portugal, March 12-16, 2005.
Holden, J., Bhagwat, S., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., Harnly, J. Development of USDA's databases for bioactive compounds. 7th Oceaniafoods, Wellington, New Zealand, April 8-17, 2005.
Howe, J., Showell, B., Holden, J., Buege, D. Effect if cooking on nutrient content, cooking yields, and nutrient retentions of beef value cuts. International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Baltimore, Maryland, August 7-12, 2005.
Schweitzer, A., Zhao, C., Andrews, K., Holden, J., Perry, C., Harnly, J., Wolf, W., Dwyer, J., Picciano, M., Betz, J., Saldanha, L., Yetley, E., Fisher, K., Sharpless, K., Radimer, K., Bindewald, B. Dietary supplement ingredient database project: Initial evaluation of high priority nutrients in multivitamin/multimineral supplements. BARC Poster Day Presentation 2005.
Showell, B., Howe, J., Holden, J., Buege, D. Comparison of the nutrient content of beef value cuts to their source cuts. International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Baltimore, Maryland, August 7-12, 2005.
Sorenson, A., Smith, K., Pehrsson, P. Using composition data on Navajo foods to develop cycle menus for Navajo senior center. National Nutrient Databank Conference, March 31- April 6, 2005.
Thomas, R. G. Nutritional Properties of Flaxseed. Maryland Dietetic Association Meeting. Lanham, Maryland, April 8, 2005.
Williams, J., Howe, J., Trainer, D., Buege, D., Zeisel, S., Holden, J. Nutrient comparison for different ham products. International Food Technology, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 17-20, 2005.
2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The research to be undertaken falls under National Program 107-Component 4, Composition of Foods, Performance Goal 3.1.2 for food composition and consumption. There is a requirement to "develop techniques for determining food composition, maintain national food composition databases, [and] monitor the food and nutrient consumption of the U.S. population." In addition, the Action Plan discusses the fact that the national nutrition focus is shifting from the prevention of nutrient deficiencies to emphasizing health and reducing disease risk.
USDA is the primary provider of current, accurate, unbiased, and representative food composition data for up to 140 nutrients and other components (e.g., flavonoids) which may be bioactive. These data for approximately 7,300 foods are used as the foundation of most other food composition databases and related applications in the U.S. and worldwide to monitor food and nutrient intake, to conduct human nutrition research, to label foods under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, and to provide a safe and adequate food supply. In particular, data for newly recognized food components (e.g., choline) are used to test important health hypotheses (e.g., relationship of choline intake to incidence of Neural Tube Defects in infants). This project supports the research to develop and maintain the National Nutrient Databank System (NNDB). The project covers research conducted under three main objectives:
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of more than 3,000 foods and 65 components for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), What We Eat in America.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality, and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 1 (FY 2004)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis using the Keyfoods Method. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new analytical data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop Request for Proposals (RFP) to solicit qualified analytical contractors. Receive and evaluate lab proposals.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Develop and implement relevant modifications to the National Nutrient Databank System (NDBS) to facilitate entry of data. Analyze enriched and unenriched grain products. Initiation of calculation of added nutrients for commodity type foods to incorporate in SR18. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods for SR18 (2005).
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR17 on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Review and compile final data for fluoride in beverages and water. Provide fluoride analytical data to Nutrition Coordinating Center (University of Minnesota). Release USDA Fluoride database on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.
Trans fatty acids Review existing data for trans fatty acids. Qualify analytical labs.
Choline Prepare and release Special Interest Database for Choline and Betaine for foods on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata. Sample and analyze selected baby foods for choline.
Phytonutrients Review and compile data for proanthocyanidins in vegetables, seeds, nuts, and grains. Release first Special Interest Database for proanthocyanidins in foods. Compile and review new analytical data for flavonoids in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Update and release flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Procure and prepare samples of Native American and Alaskan foods samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels. Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Modification of formulation module in AIM NDBS. Multiple manuscripts on formulation validation of multi-ingredient retail and restaurant foods.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data evaluation study. Distribute sets of publications to participants.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Collect matched sample units of selected foods for analysis. Generate nutrient values for selected nutrients for individual units and composite samples. Review and analyze data. Develop statistical model of nutrient variability through analyses of variance for the values. Draft manuscript(s) for publication.
Nutrient variability studies for folate in selected foods Identify foods to be tested. Collect and process samples for analysis. Send identical samples to four labs for analysis. Review and evaluate results. Prepare manuscripts for publication.
Year 2 (FY 2005) Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National food and nutrient analysis program (NFNAP) Develop updated Keyfoods Lists using 2001-2002 NHANES data. Set priorities for new foods to be analyzed. Develop specific statistical sampling plans for foods. Collect and analyze samples of foods for up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile data for foods.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Develop request for proposals. Receive and evaluate lab proposals. Ship check samples and evaluate results. Obtain best and final offers and award contracts. Award new contracts to acceptable multiple offerors. Monitor analytical and quality assurance data.
Estimates for added/fortified nutrients Calculate estimates for formulated foods using new data for agricultural commodities. Review and release data in SR18.
Disseminate SR releases Compile and disseminate SR18 on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Fluoride Incorporate fluoride data into SR18 (2005). Initiate manuscripts for fluoride results for sampling of water, beverages, and quality assurance programs. Submit manuscript(s) to journals.
Trans fatty acids Qualify analytical labs. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select foods for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Complete development of Special Interest Database for Trans Fatty Acids. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR18. Choline Develop sampling plans for food ingredients. Analyze food ingredient samples. Review and release data in updated version of the choline Special Interest Database. Phytonutrients Initiate update of the Special Interest Database for Isoflavones. Complete the update of the flavonoids Special Interest Database.
Database for special populations Identify sources of additional Native American foods to be analyzed. Procure and prepare sample units. Analyze samples for up to 128 nutrients. Review and prepare data for release data in SR19 (2006).
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality, and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate procedures for developing estimates for formulated foods Modify formulation module in AIM NDBS. Develop plan for testing NDBS algorithms for calculation. Determine test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Sample and process test set of foods for analysis. Analyze foods for indicator nutrients in test foods. Initiate recalculation of composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Initiate analysis data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Recruit and train participants for data entry study. Distribute sets of publications for validation study to participants. Receive results and analyze participants' data. Develop manuscript to report results of study. Define and modify algorithms for NDBS (new).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop a plan to identify sources and magnitude of variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
Year 3 (FY 2006)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Review and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added /fortified nutrients Estimate added nutrient values for agricultural commodity type foods to incorporate into SR20. Initiate update of multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20 (2007). Initiate estimation of added sugar and incorporate values into SR20.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR19 on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients, flavonoids as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Select food sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR19 (2006). Initiate estimation of values for related foods in SR20. Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR19. Develop estimates for more than 3,000 related foods for Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Supplements (FNDDS) for SR20 in 2007.
Phytonutrients Complete update of Special Interest Database for flavonoids. Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new). Monitor status of existing Special Interest Databases for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Analyze samples of American Indian and Alaska Native foods. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality, and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient Determine additional test sets of foods to be analyzed and calculated. Continue to sample and process foods for analysis. Analyze foods for second tier indicator nutrients in test foods. Recalculate composition of formulated foods based on analytical data. Analyze data to assess differences between original and experimental formulations. Develop and publish manuscript to document results.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Revise plan to assess variability in food values. Conduct statistical analysis of available data. Prepare manuscript for publication. Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results. Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new).
Year 4 (FY 2007)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Estimates for added nutrients Release estimates for added nutrient values for commodity type foods and incorporate into SR20. Complete updates for multi-ingredient processed foods in SR20. Estimate added sugar and incorporate values into SR20. Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR20 on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata. Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Review and compare data to existing data for trans fatty acids. Develop sampling plans for selected foods to be analyzed. Select foods sample units for monitoring. Analyze samples for trans fatty acid levels. Incorporate data for food ingredients into SR20. Complete estimation of values for related foods in SR20 (2007).
Choline Update choline database and add choline data to SR. Complete estimates for more than 3,000 related foods in FNDDS. Incorporate choline data into SR20 (2007).
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Interest Database for currency and biological relevance (new). Databases for special populations Assess needs for data for other population groups, (e.g., Hispanics). Procure and prepare samples. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality, and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Complete manuscripts.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Monitor data quality and system requirements for NDBS.
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Complete manuscripts to describe experiments to estimate variability.
Year 5 (FY 2008)
Objective 1. To develop and release the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and its related subset of 3,000 foods and 65 components for the NHANES, What We Eat in America.
National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Identify foods for analysis for monitoring of Keyfoods and special populations. Develop statistically sound sampling plans for foods to be analyzed. Generate new data for foods and up to 128 dietary components. Evaluate and compile new analytical data.
Analytical contracts for NFNAP Monitor analytical and quality control data.
Disseminate SR releases Disseminate SR21 on the Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.
Objective 2. To develop and release the Special Interest Databases for fluoride, trans fatty acids, choline, phytonutrients as well as databases for special populations.
Trans fatty acids Monitor trans fatty acid data currency for FNDDS. Update trans fatty acid data as needed.
Choline Monitor choline data currency for FNDDS. Update choline data as needed.
Phytonutrients Review status of research for other components for indications for bioactivity (new milestone). Seek partners and funding to support database development (new milestone). Monitor status of existing Special Interest Databases for currency and biological relevance. Databases for special populations Procure and prepare samples of foods (e.g., Hispanic) samples for analysis. Analyze samples. Evaluate and release data.
Objective 3. To develop and validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation, to validate the multi-nutrient expert system for the evaluation of data quality and to assess the sources and variability in nutrient levels.
Validate food formulation methods for nutrient calculation Develop and publish manuscript to document results. Monitor needs for changes in procedures.
Validate multi-nutrient expert system Define and modify algorithms for NDBS for new components of interest (new milestone).
Assess sources and variability in nutrient levels in selected foods Develop new research plan for variability studies based on preliminary data results.
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Given the magnitude and diversity of the U.S. food supply, developing and maintaining accurate and representative data for nutrients and other bioactive components in U.S. foods is a major undertaking. To address this problem Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) developed and perodically updates the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Release 19 was released in August 2006. SR is the major product of the National Nutrient Databank System and is available on the NDL Web site (www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata). SR19 provides estimates of composition for up to 140 components and almost 7,300 foods. This release also includes data for selected foods analyzed under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP). Major changes made to the SR database since the last release include: the addition of nutrient values for fluoride from the USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods - Release 2; the addition of nutrient values for total choline and betaine for some foods from the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods; the addition of about 50 traditional or subsistence foods collected for development of the American Indian/Alaska Native Foods Database; 74 new cured ham items, including: cured natural hams and the following enhanced products: ham with natural juices, ham and water added, and ham and water product. In addition to the nutrients and foods mentioned above, a number of new foods were added to the database including 30 breakfast cereals, 29 fast foods (breakfast items, and hamburger and chicken sandwiches) and 26 sweets (desserts, frostings, and candies) using data submitted by the food industry or generated by USDA through NFNAP. In addition, many nutrient values in all food groups have been updated with new data from NFNAP, food companies, and the scientific literature. A number of brand name items in baked products, breakfast cereals, and meals, entrees, and side dishes were deleted because products were no longer on the market or nutritional information does not reflect current market data.
These data are the major source of food composition data in the United States and are critical to U.S. health and nutrition research and monitoring programs as well as for the development of food and agricultural policy and trade. They provide the foundation of the FNDDS used to evaluate nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and are used in the development of nutrition guidance materials.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
The USDA beef calculator was released in September 2006. The beef calculator is an adjunct software program to the USDA search program on the NDL Web site. The program allows the user to select a type of ground beef (product with a labeled lean or fat composition from 70%-95% lean or 5%-30% fat) and a preparation method (raw, broiled patty, pan-broiled patty, pan-browned crumbles, and baked loaf). The program will provide a report of nutrient values on a 100g basis or serving size. The current ground beef values available in SR are for the following lean/fat ratios: 95%/5%, 90%/10%, 85%/15%, 80%/20%, 75%/25%, 70%/30%. This program allows the user to obtain nutrient information for any of the intermediate lean/fat products. This calculator will provide the beef industry with the nutrient values for ground beef needed to meet the requirements of the proposed FSIS labeling regulation on single-ingredient meat products. It will also provide consumers, dietitians, and scientists with the nutrient profiles of raw or cooked ground beef products between 70% and 95% lean meat and will allow for a better estimate of nutrient intake with regard to this food.
NDL collaborated with the National Pork Board to update data in SR for fresh pork cuts. Changes in animal husbandry practices and industry procedures have led to availability of leaner cuts. New, limited, nutrient profiles for nine natural pork products, raw and cooked, were released as a special interest database, "The Revised USDA Nutrient Data Set for Fresh Pork", on the NDL Web site in June 2006. Furthermore, the availability of enhanced products has become common. Over 30% of pork products available in the retail market are enhanced with salt solutions to increase flavor, cooking properties, and consistency. However, these enhanced products are higher in water, sodium, and phosphorus than the natural cuts. The study determined the nutrient composition of natural and enhanced pork products, both raw and cooked. Consumers, scientists, and government agencies will be better able to estimate nutrient intake, particularly for nutrients associated with risk factors for hypertension.
4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
Data for American Indian and Alaska Native Foods American Indians and Alaska Natives are at high risk for several chronic diseases, including cardio vascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Fifty traditional or subsistence foods were added to the American Indian/Alaska Native Foods Database. These foods were hunted, harvested, fished and prepared by tribal members. Data developed for this project were shared with the tribes that provided the samples. In many cases, the wild form of a plant or animal had a very different nutrient profile than its domesticated counterpart (e.g., berries, fish). In almost all cases, these data were generated from a limited sampling. Therefore, they are subject to revision as additional samples are analyzed.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
This project expands and updates available data for traditional nutrients and bioactive components. USDA's food composition data are the foundation of most other national, local, and regional nutrition and health research applications. In addition, they are used to guide the development of health policy in the U.S. and worldwide. Updating the database to keep current with the nutrient recommendations [changes in the units for reporting nutrients, such as folate, and different forms of a nutrient being used for the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), such as vitamin E] issued by the Institute of Medicine in the Dietary Reference Intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 is essential for nutrition monitoring activities.
Major accomplishments to date over the life of the project (FY 2004, 2005, and 2006) include the release of SR 17, 18, and 19, (Objective.
1)including data for American Indian and Alaska Native Foods (Objective 2), and fluoride and nutrient values for added vitamin E and added vitamin B12 to be used for the FNDDS (Objective 1); Special Interest Databases for choline/betaine, proanthocyanidins, and fluoride (Objective 2); investigation of the stability of folate in homogenized food samples and variability of results among analytical laboratories (Objective 3); and development of the Ground Beef Calculator (Objective 1).
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Periodic releases of the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), provide the foundation for most other food composition databases in the U.S. and in many other countries of the world. This database serves as the basis for food policy development, nutrition monitoring, nutrition research, trade and food product development. The analytical data collected under this program is be disseminated to users in academia, the government, the food industry, the media, and consumers. Research findings pertaining to sampling of the food supply, the evaluation of data quality and the generation of statistically representative estimates is of value to other investigators in the U.S., other national governments, and international health and agriculture organizations. USDA's food composition products are available on the NDL Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata, on free software for the PALM OS PDA, and on versions to be loaded onto PC's. NDL's search programs easily bring high quality USDA nutrient data to health professionals and to the American public to assist them in making knowledgeable food choices.
The technology was transferred, in part, to the scientific community in FY 2006 through presentations at the 30th National Nutrient Databank Conference, Experimental Biology 2006, the Institute of Food Technologist 2006 Annual Meeting, the annual meeting of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and the American Dietetic Association meeting. In addition to scientific presentations, Nutrient Data Laboratory information was highlighted at several Human Nutrition Research Program-sponsored exhibitions at professional meetings. NDL redesigned its bookmark this year. To emphasize the progression of nutrient data from printed materials to electronic formats and to be able to emphasize specific special interest databases of particular pertinence to an audience. NDL provided bookmarks that highlighted the new added sugars database and provided a handout on the added sugars database. NDL's outreach materials played a vital role at the Human Nutrition Research Centers' booth at the Experimental Biology meeting, where the booth emphasis was obesity. For the annual databank conference, products and services emphasized on the NDL bookmark included NDL's newest products: the ground beef calculator and the flavonoids database. Materials distributed at professional meetings and available for visitors to the NDL and Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) included bookmarks and handouts on a variety of subjects including NDL in general, SR18, the fluoride database, NFNAP, phytonutrients databases, and the three user-friendly SR search programs. NDL database methodologies and research products were also transferred to 27 database developers representing 26 countries during the International Postgraduate Course for Production, Management, and Use of Food Composition Data (Wageningen, The Netherlands, October 2005). The training course was supported, in part, by the Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. and United Nations University.
There are no obvious constraints to the transfer of this technology. Constraints to the release of data may be due to the lack of resources to update data and software, and providing special subset databases.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Data from SR are cited frequently and sourced by major media. For example, the food section of The Washington Post utilizes the NDL database for calculating the "Nutritional Analysis" of published recipes: "At the end of each recipe in the Food section you'll find a breakdown of calories and nutrients. These figures are generated by a computer program designed specifically for nutritional analysis. All information is based on figures from the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory." These kinds of citations occur frequently in publications such as Parade magazine and USA Today, which go to something like 35 million readers weekly. Other sources, which frequently use NDL data, include the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Emerging Food R&D Report, and Business Wire.
Chun, J., Lee, J., Ye, L., Exler, J., Eitenmiller, R.R. 2006. Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of raw and processed fruits and vegetables in the United States diet. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19:196-204.
Gebhardt, S.E., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B. The development of values for vitamins E and B12 for fortified foods in the United States. Sixth International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods in Copenhagen, Denmark, April 27-29, 2006.
Gebhardt, S.E., Thomas, R.G. Updating weights and percent refuse for raw fruit in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. National Nutrient Databank Conference, Hawaii, September 18-20, 2006.
Haytowitz, D.B. Nutrient content and nutrient retention of selected mushrooms. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting + Food Expo, Orlando, Florida, June 24-26, 2006.
Holden, J.M., Bhagwat, S.A., Cutrufelli, R.L. Development of USDA?s databases for bioactive compounds. Invited talk at the Chocolate Manufacturer's Association in New York, May 8, 2006.
Holden, J.M., Pehrsson, P.R., Perry, C., Patterson, K.K., Haytowitz, D.B. Understanding nutrient variability: impact on public health. National Nutrient Databank Conference, Hawaii, September 18-20, 2006.
Holden, J.M., Pehrsson, P.R., Perry, C., Haytowitz, D.B. What's behind the numbers? Statistical sampling. National Nutrient Databank Conference, Hawaii, September 18-20, 2006.
Kiker, J., Howe, J.C., Holden, J.M., Alvarado, C., Boyce, J., Luna, A., Thompson, L. Nutritional composition of grilled and raw enhanced or non-enhanced chicken breast fillets. 95th Annual Meeting of the Poultry Science Association, Edmonton, Canada, July 16-19, 2006.
Pehrsson, P.R., Haytowitz, D.B., Holden, J.M. Food composition information for ethnic populations in the U.S. National Nutrient Databank Conference, Hawaii, September 18-20, 2006.
Showell, B.A., Howe, J.C., Holden, J.M., Thompson, L., Luna, A., Mueller, S., Douglass, L. Comparison of the nutrient content of commercially-prepared rotisserie chicken to roasted chicken. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting + Food Expo, Orlando, Florida, June 24-26, 2006.
Thomas, R.G., Gebhardt, S.E. Nuts and seeds as sources of alpha and gamma tocopherols. ICR/WCRF International Research Conference, Washington, D.C., July 13-14, 2006.
Thomas, R.G., Gebhardt, S.E. Reassessment of household measures and weights for selected fruit in USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Maryland Dietetic Association annual meeting, Towson, Maryland, March 31, 2006.
Williams, J., Howe, J.C., Trainer, D., Snyder, C., Boillot, K., Lofgren, P., Buege, D., Douglass, L., Holden, J.M. Nutritional changes in fresh pork cuts from 1991-2005. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting + Food Expo, Orlando, Florida, June 24-26, 2006.
Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, S.E., Prior, R.L. 2006. Concentration of anthocyaninins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 54:4069-4075.


版权声明

本文仅代表作者观点,不代表本站立场。
本文系作者授权发表,未经许可,不得转载。

转载请注明,原文链接:https://cnslmy.cn/yangzhizhifu/80614.html
标签: 食物  美国  美国人  数据  成果 
搜索: 食物  美国  美国人  数据  成果 
标题:研究美国食品供应所需的精确而具有代表性的食物成份数据的获取

分享: